Horizontal Subsurface Flow CW's: Introduction
Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed so that water flows horizontally below ground surface through the substrate. The substrate provides surface area for bacterial biofilm growth. The advantages of HSSF CW's include increased treatment efficiencies, fewer pest problems and nuisance, increased accessibility for maintenance. Compared to surface flow systems, subsurface flow wetlands are also better suited for cold weather climates.

Synonyms: reed beds, vegetated submerged beds, root zone systems.
Constructed Wetlands