Case Study: Pagubice
The community of Cerovlje is situated in the rural and continental part of the largest  Adriatic peninsula Istria (Croatia). The settlement Pagubice has  about 80 inhabitants and a small number of  cattle.
This settlement has a recent water supply,  all houses have sanitary devices and a partial sewer system is already present. The wastewater is discharged in ground and surface water, which causes local pollution and discomfort. Together with rain, raw wastewater ends in a nearby lake, lake Butoniga, that acts as a reservoir for drinking water which affects a broader area.
In consultation with local authorities a conceptual design was made, a constructed wetland to treat sewage with an equivalent of 35 p.e..
Main Characteristics

Hybrid System: Vertical Subsurface Flow CW and Horizontal Subsurface Flow CW

Design basis
35 p.e.
Type of Wastewater
Sewage, domestic wastewater
Hydraulic Loading
5.25 m/day

Pretreatment: Septic Tank

Effective volume
21 m
Residence Time
4 days
Layout
2 compartments + pumping chamber

Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSSF)

Surface Area
70 m
Length x Width
7 m x 10 m
Depth
1.20 m
Filtration Materials
Gravel 4/14 (Inlet gravel 8/32, outlet gravel 8/32)
Vegetation
Phragmites australis

Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSF)

Surface Area
80 m
Length x Width
10.6 m x 7.5 m (surface)
Depth
0.75 m (mean value, slope 0.94%)
Filtration Materials
Gravel 4/14 (Inlet gravel 8/32, outlet gravel 8/32)
Vegetation
Phragmites australis or Carex sp.
Constructed Wetlands